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Conclusions: External beam radiation therapy continues to be an effective treatment modality for advanced retinoblastoma, achieving excellent long-term local control and survival with low rates of treatment-related toxicity and secondary malignancy. Адрес страницы this article, the corresponding literature and recent Phase III clinical trial data and the corresponding literature, for dry eye disease treatment are reviewed, revealing usajobs pathways recent graduates school buspirone hcl new strategic movements in drug pipelines. White patients had significantly better overall survival than did African-American patients in univariate analysis hazard ratio 0. Hva mener partiene om retten til fritidsaktiviteter? Articles published prior to were excluded from this review because of advances in spectacle lens technology and Food and Drug Administration legislative changes requiring impact resistance of all prescription spectacle lenses in the United States. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation UVB-R is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease Toxicity was seen in
 
 

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BCVA was significantly improved after the loading phase in all subtypes. Forty-six patients Karger AG, Basel. In developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as Fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. We report the case of a keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole.

The diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the Ophthalmological clinic at the University Hospital Le Dantec in Dakar for a left painful red eye with decreased visual acuity lasting for 15 days. The patient did not receive any foreign body into the eye. The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F.

Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment. All rights reserved. Contrast sensitivity function was evaluated by CSVE and age-matched nomograms were used spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree [cpd] for comparison.

Results: The mean age of subjects was Conclusion: Contrast sensitivity was decreased in patients with amblyopia, especially in the microtropic group.

The assessment of contrast sensitivity function may serve as a new parameter for termination of occlusion therapy. Ocular inserts – Advancement in therapy of eye diseases. Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease.

Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application.

They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye.

The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system. An update on dry eye disease molecular treatment: advances in drug pipelines. Dry eye disease is a common disorder provoking changes in tear film and ocular surface.

Untreated dry eye could cause ocular infections, corneal ulcer and blindness. Only a few drugs are authorized so far for the treatment of dry eye disease and the possibilities of evolution in this sector are immense. Consequently, a significant number of new potential solutions are under development or placed in the pharmaceutical pipeline, promising better results and lesser side effects.

In this article, the corresponding literature and recent Phase III clinical trial data and the corresponding literature, for dry eye disease treatment are reviewed, revealing the new strategic movements in drug pipelines. From the clinical trial results, the advancement in tear substitutes and secretagogues in addressing specific deficiencies of tear components even though not resolving the underlying conditions of the disease is evident.

The vast majority of new compounds under development are anti-inflammatories, steroids, non-steroids and antibiotics; however, there are also some novel lubricating drops and mucin-tear secretagogues.

A future aggressive therapy for dry eye , depending on the severity of the symptoms, would include combinations of soft steroids, anti-inflammatories, such as cyclosporine A, with the addition of the new polyvalent mucin and tear secretagogues.

Full Text Available Many types of cancers metastasize to the eye. However, uveal melanoma metastasizing to the contralateral choroid is very rare.

We report the case of a year-old man with history of treated uveal melanoma of the right eye that developed metastasis to the liver and the choroid of the left eye.

Ten years earlier, he was diagnosed to have uveal melanoma of the right eye and was initially treated with plaque radiotherapy. Two years later, upon progression of the disease in the right eye he had enucleation of the eye. In addition, we reviewed the published medical literature and described the recent advances in the management of uveal melanoma. Plasma rich in growth factors eye drops to treat secondary ocular surface disorders in patients with glaucoma.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasma rich in growth factors PRGF eye drops in patients with glaucoma with secondary ocular surface disorders OSDs due to surgeries and topical hypotensive drugs use. Patients were treated with PRGF eye drops four times a day. The safety of the treatment was also evaluated. Six patients seven eyes with open-angle glaucoma and one eye with uveitic glaucoma treated with PRGF eye drops were evaluated. Five were female and one was male.

The mean treatment time was The mean time to reach closure of the corneal ulcer was A statistical significant reduction in OSDI scale In patients with glaucoma and secondary OSDs refractive to conventional treatments, the treatment with PRGF eye drops could be considered a possible therapeutic option, because it demonstrates an improvement in the signs and symptoms of the ocular surface, as well as a better control of the IOP.

This is an initial research work that can open doors for future research to confirm these findings. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past Yet the patient wasn’t aware of any Effectiveness of hormone therapy for treating dry eye syndrome in postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.

The efficacy of hormone therapy HT on dry eye syndrome remains debatable. To study the efficacy of HT on dry eye syndrome. A randomized controlled, double blind, parallel group, community-based study in 42 post-menopausal patients was conducted. The patients had dry eye syndrome and were not taking any medications. They were assigned to one of two groups.

Participants in the study were included for final analysis. The improvement of dry eye symptoms were measured by visual analog scale, tear secretion, intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, and tear breakup time determined before treatment and at 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. At 12 weeks, the number of patients who reported improvement of dry eye symptoms was greater in the HT group than that in the placebo group.

However, the difference was not statistically significant RR 0. For other parameters, there was no significant difference between the two groups. According to the present study, there is no strong evidence to support the use of HT for treating dry eye syndrome.

The limited number of participants included in the present study may have contributed to the insignificant effects. Mechanical eye injuries in children aged years treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade: Frequency, causes and preventive measures. Full Text Available Introduction. Eye injuries represent a significant problem in children. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and causes of the eye injury and to propose measures of the eye injury prevention in children up to 15 years of age.

This was a retrospective study of children with the eye injuries treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade during the period March to February Gender and age of the children, time of injury, the type and site of injuries, visual acuity upon admission and at discharge, as well as the time of surgery in relation to time of injury were analyzed.

The ratio between the injured boys and girls was 3. The highest percentage of injured children was in the group years old The percentages of severe closed and open injuries of the eyeball were almost equal. Visual acuity upon discharge and subsequent follow-up examinations were significantly improved after the applied treatment in comparison with the visual acuity upon admission.

Eye injuries in children still represent a severe health problem. Regarding the youngest age group of children, adults are mainly responsible for these injuries due to their lack of attention, while in older children these injuries are the result of the production and distribution of inappropriate toys and a failure to implement the legal traffic regulations applicable to children.

The prevention of eye injuries is essential. Antibiotics for eye injections; and Punctal plugs for dry eye.

This is the fourth in a series of Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for surface eye disease an AOS thesis. To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions.

In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy AWLE , superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis SLK , and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis VKC. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment.

Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment.

Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy.

Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes , although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC.

Eye surgery in the elderly. It does however entail problems. Ophthalmic treatments are widely recognized as having a low risk of general complications. A classic example is cataract surgery, considered to be one of the safest and most frequently performed surgical procedures in the world. However, advanced age brings with it risks that should be considered before surgery. Eye operations, as with procedures on other organs, are largely dependent on the quality of surgical tissues.

Therefore, the elderly are at increased risk of complications. Improved general health and postoperative follow-up with the use of noninvasive technologies such as optical coherence tomography translate into lower intraoperative risk and better postoperative prognosis.

In this review, we discuss the impact of general health on operational prognosis, therapeutic problems, and technical difficulties which a surgeon and anesthesiologist may encounter in the process.

We also consider new technology and strategies specifically aimed at treating eye conditions in the elderly. Keywords: eye surgery, eye aging, anesthesiology in ophthalmology, cataract, glaucoma, vitrectomy, age-related macular degeneration. Efficacy and safety of short-term application of pranoprofen eye drops for senile patients with dry eyes. Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the efficacy and safety of short-term application of pranoprofen eye drops in the treatment of dry eyes in senile patients.

All cases were bilateral onset, and the right eyes were marked as the observation eyes. Aging and oxidative stress seem to play a key role in the onset and progression of ocular surface diseases.

Dry Eye Syndrome DES is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface in which symptoms may interfere with the ability to work and carry out daily functions. Following the run-in period subjects were randomized in two groups: group A n.

The data obtained in the two study groups A and B were, respectively the following: Schirmer I: 9. Results: Six patients seven eyes with open-angle glaucoma and one eye with uveitic glaucoma treated with PRGF eye drops were evaluated.

The mean. Diquafosol is a drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. Additionally, it summarizes the ocular effects of diquafosol in healthy human eyes. Lastly, the importance of improving tear film stability in dry eye treatment, as well as general advances in dry eye treatments, are described. It stimulates the secretion of tear fluid and mucin on the ocular surface, thus enabling us to selectively treat the tear film layer, playing an important role in the establishment of the concept of “Tear Film Oriented Therapy TFOT “, an effective therapeutic approach to dry eye in Japan.

Methods: By the prepositive dignose, a total of 31 patients of thyroid eye disease was investigated. They all had opthalmic symptoms, their thyroid hormones were higher than that of normal persons. These patients were foreclosed the ophthalmology caused by other diseases making use of the orbit CT.

The degree of binocular exopthalmos was measured by a specialist. The dosage of I treatment according to formula calculation.

Nanocarrier mediated retinal drug delivery: overcoming ocular barriers to treat posterior eye diseases. Effective drug delivery to the retina still remains a challenge due to ocular elimination mechanisms and complex barriers that selectively limit the entry of drugs into the eye.

To overcome these barriers, frequent intravitreal injections are currently used to achieve high drug concentrations in vitreous and retina. However, these repetitive injections may result in several side effects. Recent advancements in the field of nanoparticle-based drug delivery could overcome some of these unmet needs and various preclinical studies conducted to date have demonstrated promising results of nanotherapies in the treatment of retinal diseases.

Compared to the majority of commercially available ocular implants, the biodegradable nature of most nanoparticles NPs avoids the need for surgical implantation and removal after the release of the payload. In addition, the sustained drug release from NPs over an extended period of time reduces the need for frequent intravitreal injections and the risk of associated side effects. The nanometer size and highly modifiable surface properties make NPs excellent candidates for targeted ocular drug delivery.

Studies have shown that nanocarriers enhance the intravitreal half-life and thus bioavailability of a number of drugs including proteins and peptides. In addition, they have shown promising results in delivering genetic material to the retinal tissues by protecting it from possible intravitreal degradation. This review covers the various challenges associated with drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye , particularly the retina, and highlights the application of nanocarriers to overcome these challenges in context with recent advances in preclinical studies.

Recent advances in laser in situ keratomileusis-associated dry eye. Early identification and treatment of post-operative dry eye are essential to prevent further ocular surface damage. This article reviews the recent studies of LASIK-associated dry eye , including clinical features, aetiology, risk factors, evaluations and treatment.

The applications of novel technologies in LASIK-associated dry eye evaluation like anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography SD-OCT and corneal confocal microscopy are also introduced in this review.

Eye Disease and Development. This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income.

The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation UVB-R is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis LASIK is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes.

The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes , with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes , and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease.

Although patients with Prader-Willi syndrome have a high rate of diabetes, to date, there have been only 4 reported cases 6 eyes undergoing vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we report a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with proliferative diabetic retinopathy that was treated by early vitrectomy OU under local anesthesia. A year-old man was diagnosed as having Prader-Willi syndrome at the age of 2 years and diabetes at age He was referred to our hospital as diabetic retinopathy had been detected in his first ophthalmological examination at age Visual acuity was 0.

Proliferative retinopathy, with cataract and macular edema, was identified in both eyes. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed on both eyes.

However, proliferative membranes developed bilaterally, and vitreous hemorrhage occurred OS. Visual acuity decreased to 0. The patient was hospitalized at our internal medicine department for blood glucose control. Subsequently, with an anesthesiologist on standby, a hypnotic sedative was injected intramuscularly, achieving retro-bulbar anesthesia. Combined cataract and vitreous surgery was performed on the left eye. One week later, a similar operation was performed on the right eye.

The patient was discharged four days later. In the two years since these operation, visual acuity has been maintained at 0. Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome should be examined for early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Additive Effect of preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0.

In total, patients with dry eye syndrome were divided randomly into 3 groups. Group 1 50 patients was treated 4 times daily with preserved sodium hyaluronate 0. Ocular surface disease index OSDI score, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining, and impression cytology were evaluated. There were significant improvements in the OSDI score, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I score, fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining, goblet cell density, and impression cytological findings in groups 2 and 3 compared with those for group 1 in patients with dry eye syndrome at 1, 2, and 3 months P dry eye syndrome.

Preservative-free sodium hyaluronate 0. Neuroimaging in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Eye Pain. Ocular or eye pain is a frequent complaint encountered not only by eye care providers but neurologists. Isolated eye pain is non-specific and non-localizing; therefore, it poses significant differential diagnostic problems. A wide range of neurologic and ophthalmic disorders may cause pain in, around, or behind the eye. These include ocular and orbital diseases and primary and secondary headaches.

In patients presenting with an isolated and chronic eye pain, neuroimaging is usually normal. However, at the beginning of a disease process or in low-grade disease, the eye may appear “quiet,” misleading a provider lacking familiarity with underlying disorders and high index of clinical suspicion.

Delayed diagnosis of some neuro-ophthalmic causes of eye pain could result in significant neurologic and ophthalmic morbidity, conceivably even mortality.

This article reviews some recent advances in imaging of the eye , the orbit, and the brain, as well as research in which neuroimaging has advanced the discovery of the underlying pathophysiology and the complex differential diagnosis of eye pain. Keywords: diquafosol, dry eye , mucin secretion, fluid secretion, ocular surface, vision. Advanced pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to phakic intraocular collamer lens implant. A year-old man presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic intraocular collamer lens ICL placement 8 years earlier.

He was incidentally found to have a decline in visual acuity from an anterior subcapsular cataract and elevated intraocular pressure IOP in the left eye. There were signs of pigment dispersion and no evidence of angle closure. Diffuse optic nerve thinning was consistent with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects.

Pigment dispersion was also present in the patient’s right eye , but without elevated IOP or visual field defects. The patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications and the phakic ICL in the left eye was removed concurrently with cataract surgery to prevent further visual field loss. Pigment dispersion glaucoma is a serious adverse outcome after phakic ICL implantation and regular post-operative monitoring may prevent advanced visual field loss.

Demographic features and visual outcomes of patients presenting to diabetic photo-screening and treated for sight threatening retinopathy in Fiji. Full Text Available AIM: To describe the demographic features and visual outcomes of patients presenting to photo-screening services, and treated for sight threatening retinopathy STR in a low resource setting, Fiji.

Fundus images were graded using standardised guidelines. Patient demographics, retinopathy grading and visual acuity data were extracted from the database and analyzed. Improved glycaemic control OR Improved glycaemic control and timely treatment of patients with sight threatening complications is important in halting disease progression. Methods: This was a randomized, double-masked, single-center, placebo-controlled, contralateral eye study of 30 patients undergoing LASIK surgery.

The mean age of patients was Outcome measures included tear film break up time TFBUT, visual acuity, degree of corneal and conjunctival staining, and treatment-related adverse events. All other evaluated variables were comparable between the two treatments. No adverse events were reported in the study. Effects of PUVA on the eye. Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light PUVA.

Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A UVA had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment.

No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later.

Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry- eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes.

Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry- eye syndrome. Preliminary study of clinical staging of moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated by non-surgical methods. Objective: To explore the clinical staging of moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma by evaluating the prognosis and provide criteria for individual treatment. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed patients with moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy alone.

According to the primary lesion length by barium meal X-ray film, the invasion range and the relation between location and the surrounding organs by CT scans the disease category was classified by a 6 stage method and a 4 stage method.

The results of this as compared with those of 4 stage system, the following data were finally arrived at. For simplicity and convenience, the 4 stage classification is recommended. The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the miglustat effects in this GD neurological patient. Eye movement analysis during subsequent controls was performed by estimating the characteristic parameters of saccadic main sequence.

Moreover, it confirms that quantitative eye movement analysis is able to precociously identify also slight neurological alterations, permitting more accurate GD classification. Fatal hemoptysis in patients with advanced esophageal cancer treated with apatinib. Compared with cytotoxic drugs, targeted drugs have the characteristics of good curative results, less adverse effects, and convenient oral administration.

Hence, they are especially suitable for patients with cancer who are not able to tolerate chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenic therapy can achieve the objective by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels in tumors.

Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the intracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor It has been proven to be effective and safe in treating patients with gastric carcinoma and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma. So far, no reports are available on the treatment of esophageal cancer with apatinib. Two patients with advanced esophageal cancer were treated with oral apatinib because of their poor physical condition.

After treatment, the dyspnea symptoms disappeared and quality of life significantly improved. Chest computed tomography showed massive necrosis of tumor tissues in each patient.

The tumors significantly reduced and a cavity was formed locally in each patient. However, both patients died of massive hemoptysis, probably due to the rupture of the bronchial artery eroded by tumors. The results indicated that apatinib was effective in treating some patients with advanced esophageal cancer, and adverse effects were controllable. In addition, the use of apatinib should be carefully controlled for patients with esophageal cancer, especially in those with large vessels and trachea or bronchus eroded by tumor, so as to avoid or reduce the occurrence of fatal hemorrhage.

Keywords: angiogenesis. Penetrating eye injury in war. The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries.

During the Iran-Iraq War , eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities.

Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear.

Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. Observations: A year-old man presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic intraocular collamer lens ICL placement 8 years earlier. Conclusions and importance: Pigment dispersion glaucoma is a serious adverse outcome after phakic ICL implantation and regular post-operative monitoring may prevent advanced visual field loss.

Keywords: Phakic intraocular lens, Intraocular collamer lens, Pigment dispersion, Glaucoma. The relative timing between eye and hand rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge. The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye -hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval ISI and the trial order were.

The role of eye protection in work-related eye injuries. As circumstances surrounding occupational eye injuries have been poorly documented previously, their associations to occupation, industry and work-safety practices, including safety eyewear use, need to be identified to develop appropriate preventive strategies for high-risk groups. From a prospective cross-sectional survey of all eye injuries treated at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, work-related cases were analysed for demographic, occupational and safety eye -wear information.

Hospital-based data were supplemented by information from WorkCover Authorities and Labour Force statistics to derive incidence and cost estimates.

Automotive workers had the highest frequency for penetrating injuries, and most were exposed to hammering and were also the least likely to wear safety eye -wear.

Fireworks combusted during New Year’s Eve festivities can cause different eye traumas which often need complex reconstructive surgery. It was our aim to systematically analyse these eye trauma cases which were treated at our clinic during the last eight years.

Age, gender, side, trauma mechanism, treatment methods and outcome were analysed for all eye trauma cases caused by fireworks during the New Year’s Eve celebrations from to For statistical analysis all trauma cases were divided into two groups of major and non-major eye trauma. The total number of patients treated was 28 women, 94 men, mean age Further 16 eyes In the aftermath 11 eyes 8.

However older patients suffer from major eye trauma more often. More education and prophylaxis of eye trauma caused by fireworks is desirable. Interleukin-6 levels in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with dry eye disease treated with cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion. To evaluate interleukin-6 IL-6 levels in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease before and after treatment with cyclosporin A ophthalmic emulsion CsA or its vehicle.

Conjunctival cytology specimens were obtained from a subset of patients enrolled in a 6-month randomized, double-masked clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of topical CsA at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of B. There was no change from baseline in the level of G3PDH after 3 or 6 months in any group. This preliminary, small-cohort study showed a decrease in IL-6 in the conjunctival epithelium of moderate to severe dry eye patients treated with 0. The observed decrease suggests that dry eye disease involves immune-mediated inflammatory processes that may be decreased by treatment with topical ophthalmic cyclosporine.

Accommodation, refractive error and eye growth in chickens. We raised chickens with defocusing lenses of differing powers in front of their eyes. For this purpose, small hoods made from soft, thin leather were carefully fitted to their heads. Lenses were attached to the hoods by velcro fasteners and could be easily removed for cleaning. The powers of the lenses were such that their optical effects could be compensated for by accommodation.

It was verified by infrared IR photoretinoscopy that the chickens could keep their retinal images in focus. Wearing a lens resulted in a consistent shift of the non cycloplegic refractive state measured without the lens which was in the direction to compensate for the lens.

The PND, in turn, was used to compare eyes treated with different lenses. It was found that the PND was increased in eyes which were treated with negative lenses compared to those treated with positive lenses. This effect occurs independently in both eyes and it is not due to changes in corneal curvature. We discuss our result in terms of a closed-loop feedback system for the regulation of eye growth. Efficacy of goniosynechialysis for advanced chronic angle-closure glaucoma. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations including measurement of visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, and IOP; biomicroscopy; specular microscopy; fundus examination; and gonioscopy followed by anterior chamber paracentesis and GSL for nasal peripheral anterior synechiae in the eye with severe CACG.

Retinal image registration for eye movement estimation. This paper describes a novel methodology for eye fixation measurement using a unique videoophthalmoscope setup and advanced image registration approach. The representation of the eye movements via Poincare plot is also introduced. The properties, limitations and perspective of this methodology are finally discussed.

Preliminary observation on the effects of Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules in treating corneal edema after phacoemulsification. METHODS: Ninety cases with at least second degree corneal edema the first day after phacoemulsification were randomly divided into the routinely treated group and the Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group, 45 cases for each group.

While to the Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group, traditional Chinese medicines with the function of promoting blood circulation, alleviating water retention and removing nebula named Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules were additionally administered.

The curative effects and the time taken for vanishment of corneal edema in each group were then observed. One week was counted as a course of treatment and curative effects were calculated after two courses.

Full Text Available Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor’s cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global shortage of donor corneas [2].

At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer TGP 4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5].

This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5].

This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of ‘ Eye for eyes ‘ in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Corneal transplantation has been in routine practice to treat corneal endothelial diseases like Bullous Keratopathy, in which either the whole cornea or the partial cornea the endothelium alone is transplanted from the cadaver donor to the recipient with the endothelial disease [1]. In whole corneal or partial corneal transplant one cadaver donor’s cornea can be used to treat one recipient cornea only, which leads to a huge global.

Efficiency and safety of subconjunctival injection of anti-VEGF agent – bevacizumab – in treating dry eye. Dry eye is a chronic inflammatory ocular surface disease with high prevalence. The current therapies for dry eye remain to be unspecific and notcomprehensive. This study aims to explore safety and efficacy of a novel treatment – subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab – in dry eye patients. Dry eye symptoms, signs corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, conjunctival vascularity, corneal staining, tear break-up time, Marx line score, and blood pressure , and conjunctival impression cytology were evaluated 3 days before and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after injection.

Significant improvements were observed in dry eye symptoms, tear break-up time, and conjunctival vascularization area at all the visits after injection compared to the baseline Pdry eye disease. The observation and nursing for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with Sorafenib.

Objective: To summarize the author’s experience which was obtained in observing and nursing the adverse reactions of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients who were treated with Sorafenib.

Methods: The adverse reactions and their severity observed in 34 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with Sorafenib were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Side effects or toxic reaction were observed in all the patients, which included neutropenia, foot-hand syndrome FHS , fatigue, diarrhea, hypertention, rash, etc.

Five patients had to cut down the dose of Sorafenib in order to relieve the symptom, among them one patient had grade 4 FHS, 3 patients had grade 3 FHS and one patient had grade 3 neutropenia. Conclusion: Being familiar with sorafenib’s adverse reaction, closely observing the patients condition and affording appropriate nursing measures, all the above items can definitely improve the therapeutic results and patient’s living quality.

New therapeutic modality for corneal endothelial disease using Rho-associated kinase inhibitor eye drops. Corneal endothelial dysfunction accompanied by visual disturbance is a primary indication for corneal endothelial transplantation.

However, despite the value and potential of endothelial graft surgery, a strictly pharmacological approach for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction remains an attractive proposition.

Previously, we reported that the selective Rho-associated kinase ROCK inhibitor Y promotes cell adhesion and proliferation, and inhibits the apoptosis of primate corneal endothelial cells in culture. These findings have led us to develop a novel medical treatment for the early phase of corneal endothelial disease using ROCK inhibitor eye drops. In rabbit and monkey models of partial endothelial dysfunction, we showed that corneal endothelial wound healing was accelerated via the topical application of ROCK inhibitor to the ocular surface, resulting in the regeneration of a corneal endothelial monolayer with a high endothelial cell density.

Based on these animal studies, we are now attempting to advance the clinical application of ROCK inhibitor eye drops for patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. A pilot clinical study was performed at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, and the effects of Y eye drops after transcorneal freezing were evaluated in 8 patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction.

We observed a positive effect of ROCK inhibitor eye drops in treating patients with central edema caused by Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy. We believe that our new findings will contribute to the establishment of a new approach for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Dry eye after laser in-situ keratomileusis. Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis LASIK is one of the most commonly performed refractive procedures with excellent visual outcomes.

Dry eye syndrome is one of the most frequently seen complications after LASIK, with most patients developing at least some mild dry eye symptoms postoperatively. To achieve improved visual outcomes and greater patient satisfaction, it is essential to identify patients prone to dry eyes preoperatively, and initiate treatment early in the course. Enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of post-LASIK dry eye will help advance our approach to its management.

Full Text Available Since the efficacy of ipilimumab on nivolumab-resistant advanced melanoma is extremely low, additional supportive therapy for anti-PD-1 antibody therapy-resistant advanced melanoma is needed. Although several supportive therapies that enhance the antitumor immune response of anti-PD-1 antibodies have already been reported, unexpected immune-related adverse events were detected at the same time. In this report, we describe a patient with advanced melanoma treated with nivolumab followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy, which might have triggered bullous pemphigoid BP.

Although several cases of BP developing in anti-PD-1 antibody- treated patients have already been reported, in this report, we shed light on the possible pathogenesis of BP developing in a patient treated with nivolumab through M2 macrophages. Dry eye syndrome in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Full Text Available Purpose: The pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients with thyroid eye disease is presented.

Methods: 34 eyes 17 patients with thyroid eye disease were investigated. Dry eye evaluations included Shirmer and Jhones testing, tear film break-up time, corneal fluorescein staining. Background The objective of this prospective pilot study was to evaluate the results of systemic corticosteroid therapy in patient with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic neuropathy of the optical nerve NAION for an observation period of one year and to measure the NAION incidence in the initially healthy contralateral eye of these patients.

Patients and Methods All patients diagnosed with acute NAION who were admitted to our ward during and who fulfilled all inclusion criteria for systemic corticosteroid therapy were included in the study.

The inclusion criteria were corrected visual acuity of 0. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist and given a complete ophthalmological examination, including fluorescein angiography and examination of the visual field. Only 3 of the 23 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria for corticoid treatment and were then treated. The dose was then tapered over 3 to 4 months. Results The mean best corrected visual acuity on admission was 0. The mean duration of treatment was 3.

Treatment was discontinued after 5 to 6 months or 8 to 9 months after the initial examination. The mean visual acuity on the contralateral eye was 0. After 4 month follow-up, the visual acuity in two patients had decreased to 1. No steroid treatment was initiated for the contralateral eye. Conclusion Corticosteroid treatment improved vision in all patients with NAION in comparison with the untreated contralateral eye.

In a single patient, visual acuity decreased in the contralateral eye. Our study confirmed that corticosteroid treatment may be a. Glaucoma and dry eye disease: the role of preservatives in glaucoma medications. Full Text Available Glaucoma is a common cause of irreversible blindness with increasing prevalence. Some of glaucoma patients will also experience dry eye. Dry eye is the most frequent side effect related to benzalkonium chloride BAC-containing eye drop used for glaucoma patients.

In addition, glaucoma and dry eyes have shared risk factors that are old age and female. Dry eye symptoms can be treated by applying preservative-free eye drop, giving combination of preservative containing and preservative-free eye drop to reduce BAC exposure, prescribing artificial tear and conducting surgery to minimize or eliminate the need of topical medication.

Med J Indones ; Keywords: benzalkonium chloride, dry eye , glaucoma. Laser photocoagulation – eye. Since parts of the retina are burned, you may develop: Mild loss No statistically significant association was found between PD-L1 expression and survival; adjusted hazard ratio of 1. Effect of diquafosol ophthalmic solution on the optical quality of the eyes in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye.

To investigate the short- and long-term effects of diquafosol ophthalmic solution on the optical quality of the eyes in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Ocular higher-order aberrations HOAs were measured with a wavefront sensor before and at 15 min after diquafosol instillation at the baseline visit and at 4 weeks after treatment initiation.

Treatment with diquafosol ophthalmic solution significantly improved dry eye symptoms, corneal staining and BUT. Compared with mean total HOAs at baseline 0. Although no significant change in HOAs was observed as a short-term effect of a single-drop instillation of diquafosol, long-term use of diquafosol to treat aqueous-deficient dry eye reduced HOAs as well as improved corneal epithelial damage and tear film stability.

Spectacle-related eye injuries, spectacle-impact performance and eye protection. The aim was to review the prevalence of spectacle-related ocular trauma and the performance of currently available spectacle materials and to identify the risk factors associated with spectacle-related ocular trauma. Articles published prior to were excluded from this review because of advances in spectacle lens technology and Food and Drug Administration legislative changes requiring impact resistance of all prescription spectacle lenses in the United States.

Six hundred and ninety-five individual ocular traumas, for which spectacles contributed to or were the main cause of injury, were identified in the literature. Frame, lens design and product material choice were found to be associated with ocular injury, with polycarbonate lenses cited as the material of choice in the literature.

International, regional and national standards for spectacle lenses had a wide range of impact requirements for prescription spectacle lenses, sports eye protection and occupational eye protection. Spectacle-related injury represents a small but preventable cause of ocular injury. With the increasing numbers of spectacle wearers and calls to spend more time outdoors to reduce myopia, spectacle wearers need to be made aware of the potential risks associated with wearing spectacles during medium- to high-risk activities.

At particular risk are those prone to falls, the functionally one- eyed , those who have corneal thinning or have had previous eye surgery or injury. With increased understanding of specific risk factors, performance guidelines can be developed for prescription spectacle eye.

However, prevention that is, slowing or stopping PD in a prodromal stage is still a dream and one reason for this is that we have no consensus on primary endpoints for clinical trials which reflect the progression in prodromal stages of PD, such as in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder RBD —a methodological challenge to be met in the future. External eye symptoms in indoor environments. Eye irritation, for example dry or irritated eyes , is generally among top three reported symptoms in office-like environments, in particular among workplaces with cognitive demanding visual display unit VDU work.

The symptoms are especially among middle and advanced ages and particularly among women more than men. The symptoms are also among the most commonly reported complaints in the eye clinic. To be in a position to interpret the high prevalence of eye symptoms, a multidisciplinary and integrated approach is necessary that involves the external eye physiology separate from internal eye effects , eye diseases evaporative dry eye DE , aqueous-deficient DE, and gland dysfunctions , and risk factors that aggravate the stability of precorneal tear film PTF resulting in hyperosmolarity and initiation of inflammatory reactions.

Indoor environmental, occupational and personal risk factors may aggravate the PTF stability; factors such as age, contact lenses, cosmetics, diet, draft, gender, low humidity and high temperature, medication, outdoor and combustion pollutants, and VDU work. Psychological stressors may further influence the reporting behavior of eye symptoms. The impact of the risk factors may occur in a combined and exacerbating manner.

Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia. Lee, Michael S. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes.

However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes , virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later.

The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light.

The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event. In this report, we describe a particular condition of a year-old man who showed advanced bilateral glaucomatous-like optic disc damage, even though the intraocular pressure resulted normal during all examinations performed.

Visual field test, steady-state pattern electroretinogram, retinal nerve fiber layer and retinal tomographic evaluations were performed to evaluate the optic disc damage. Visual fields were severely compromised, and intraocular pressure values were not superior to 14 mm Hg during routine examinations.

An accurate anamnesis and the suspicion of this disease represent a crucial aspect to establish the correct diagnosis. In fact, our patient strongly rubbed his eyes for more than 10 h per day. Recurrent and continuous eye rubbing can induce progressive optic neuropathy, causing severe visual field damage similar to the pathology of advanced glaucoma. Human eye modelling for ophthalmic simulators project for clinic applications.

Most of eye tumors are treated by surgical means, which involves the enucleation of affected eyes. In terms of treatment and control of diseases, there is brachytherapy, which often utilizes small applicator of Co, I, Ru, Ir, etc. These methods are shown to be very efficient but highly cost.

The objective of this work is propose a detailed simulator modelling for eye characterization. Additionally, this study can contribute to design and build a new applicator in order to reduce the cost and to allow more patients to be treated. Eye tracking in user experience design. Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology.

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